Bob Hawke is a former politician who served as the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia from 1983 to 1991. He was born in border town South Australia, and educated in Perth. After completing degrees in both Law and Arts at the University of Western Australia, Hawke won a Rhodes Scholarship and went to Oxford University to continue his studies. In 1958 he took a job as a research officer with the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) and went on to become ACTU President from 1970-1980. Hawke entered the House of Representatives as the Labor MP for Wills at the 1980 federal election. In February 1983 he became the Leader of the Opposition, and defeated Malcolm Fraser at the 1983 election shortly afterwards. Hawke and Treasurer Paul Keating reformed many aspects of the economy, including floating the Australian dollar, deregulating the financial sector and reducing trade barriers. The Hawke Government’s most important initiative was the Prices and Incomes Accord, which reduced industrial disputes and improved economic growth throughout the 1980’s. He used commonwealth laws to take control over world heritage areas, stopping the building of the controversial Frankin River dam in Tasmania in 1983, and passed the Sex Discrimination Act in 1984. Hawke led Labor to victory at four federal elections, making him Australia’s longest serving Labor Prime Minister. Following the 1990 election, Hawke was challenged twice for the leadership by Paul Keating and in December 1991, Hawke was ousted by his own party. After losing the leadership, Hawke announced his retirement from Parliament and went on to pursue business interests and to write his memoirs.